Cadmium Concentration in Brown and Polished Rice from Selected Farms in Barangay Real, Calamba City and its Potential Non-cancer Health Risk in Adult Population

Cyreene S. Fontanilla,1 Romeo R. Quizon,1 Victorio B. Molina,1 Vivien Fe F. Fadrilan-Camacho,1 Maylin C. Palatino2 and Virginia C. Cuevas3

1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health,
University of the Philippines Manila
2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health,
University of the Philippines Manila
3 Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines Los Baños

 

Objectives. This study was conducted to determine the cadmium (Cd) concentration in brown and polished rice collected from the 9 farms in Barangay Real, Calamba City. This study also assessed the non-cancer health risk to adults (>20 years old) of long-term consumption of rice Cd using the non-cancer hazard quotient (NHQ).

Methods. Rice grains with hull were collected in November-December 2013. Both rice types were analyzed for Cd using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS). The NHQ was calculated by dividing the estimated daily intake of Cd via rice consumption by the oral reference dose (RfD) for Cd.

Results. Mean Cd concentrations in brown and polished rice collected from the farms in Barangay Real ranged from 0.0062 to 0.0725 mg/kg and 0.0047 to 0.0778 mg/kg, respectively. The NHQ values of Cd in both rice types were less than 1.0 for adults (>20 years old).

Conclusion. Cd concentrations in brown and polished rice from the 9 farms did not exceed that 0.4 mg/kg maximum allowable Cd concentration in rice set by FAO/WHO. Since the NHQ did not exceed 1.0, long-term exposure to Cd through consumption of brown and polished rice from these farms is unlikely to cause non-cancer health effects in adults (>20 years old). It is unlikely for adults to develop kidney diseases such as tubular proteinuria, decreased glomerual filtration rates, and itai-itai disease.

Key Words: Cadmium, brown rice, polished rice, non-cancer hazard quotient