Neuropsychological and Cognitive Profile of Retired Filipino Boxers

Patricia Ann D. Canto, Alvin Rae F. Cenina, Leah L. Shiong Shu, Michelle M. Anlacan,
Lourdes K. Ledesma, Roland Dominic G. Jamora and  Carissa Paz C. Dioquino

Introduction. Boxing is a popular sport in the country. In light of this, risk factors of actual and potential chronic injury among Filipino boxers should be investigated. Repetitive brain trauma from boxing may produce progressive neurological deterioration and is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes. This is the first local study that examined and described the cognitive and behavioral profile of retired Filipino boxers where specific variables were measured by making use of several psychological tests. 

Objectives. This study aimed to describe the neuropsychological and cognitive impairment among retired Filipino boxers and possible risk factors.

Methods. This is a descriptive study on the cognitive and behavioral profile of retired Filipino boxers using standard screening examinations (Neuropsychiatric Index, Symptoms Suggestive of Cognitive Impairment, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale).

Results and Discussion. An increase in times knocked showed a possible relationship with a low MoCA score, with language barrier a fac¬tor. SSCI and HADS correlated with the increased rate of being knocked out and with longer years since retirement. Development of cognitive impairment, neuropsychologic and neuropsychiatric features are strongly supported by an increased rate of being knocked out and longer time after retirement, chronic traumatic encephalopathy being a potential consequence of repetitive brain trauma.

Conclusion. An increased rate of being knocked out increase¬s the risk of developing cognitive impairment, neuropsychologic and neuropsychiatric features; with symptoms manifesting years after retirement.

Key Words: chronic brain injury, cognition disorders, boxing