A Retrospective Study on Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Bacteria in the Philippines from 1999 – 2013

Maria Margarita M. Lota and Angelica Anne E. Latorre

Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Public Health,
University of the Philippines Manila

The introduction of antibiotics has revolutionized the control of infections that remarkably reduced morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antibiotics have been the mainstay of treatment for many bacterial infections. The challenge of antibiotic resistance is global. Many studies have been published showing the gravity of this problem both in the hospital an community setting. An important aspect of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) greatly affecting the medical community are the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms (ESBL).

Objective. The study aims to determine the prevalence, antibiogram, and genotypic characteristics of the different isolates of ESBL in the Philippines.

Methods. Available literature on ESBL in the Philippines from PUBMED and Herdin was collected, and additional microbiological data was gathered from the Philippine General Hospital (PGH). Ten studies and three annual ARSP reports of the 22 sentinel sites were included. The bacterial isolates and sensitivity to extended-spectrum antibiotics were collated and compared with each others.

Results. There is increasing prevalence of ESBL from 1999-2013. The proportion of ESBL K. pneumoniae and E. coli ranged from 10 - 43.24% and 4 - 20.9%, respectively. There was varying antimicrobial activity against antibiotics. Limited data on the genotypic characteristics of ESBL was reported.

Conclusion. The continued rise in ESBL resistance needs immediate action. Information on ESBLs is limited, particularly in the country. More studies need to be conducted to expand our knowledge of ESBLs.

Key Words: antibiotic, resistance, extended-spectrum, beta-lactamase, antimicrobial resistance, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia