Surgical Simulation of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery using Thiel Soft-Embalmed Human Cadaver

Precious Eunice R. Grullo,1 Harivelle Charmaine T. Hernando,2 Ryner Jose DC. Carrillo,1,2 Pio Renato F. Villacorta,2 Josefino G. Hernandez,1 Ramon Antonio B. Lopa,1 Arsenio Claro A. Cabungcal1 and Jupiter Kelly H. Barroa2

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine and
Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila
2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila

Objective. This study describes the quality of Thiel soft-embalmed cadavers as training model for endoscopic sinus surgery in terms of color and consistency of the tissues and similarity of performing the surgical steps to live surgery.

Methods. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Six Thiel soft-embalmed cadavers from the University of the Philippines, College of Medicine, Department of Anatomy were used as training models. The Thiel-preserved cadavers utilized the soft embalming protocol being employed at the Virginia State Anatomical Program in Richmond, Virginia, USA. Ten otorhinolaryngologists were recruited to evaluate the cadavers using a questionnaire with three parts. The first two parts utilize a 10-point Likert scale with 1 as the least similar to live patient while 10 as simulating the live patient. The third part is an open-ended question regarding the suitability of Thiel soft-embalmed cadavers in the training for endoscopic sinus surgery.

Results. Endoscopic sinus surgery was successfully performed in all cadavers. The Thiel soft-embalmed cadaver closely replicates the color and consistency of the anatomic structures important in endoscopic sinus surgery. All the surgical steps were performed with ease simulating live surgery.

Conclusion. Thiel soft-embalmed cadaver is a suitable model for training in endoscopic sinus surgery.

Key Words:  Thiel cadaver, endoscopic sinus surgery, surgical model